Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University
Developing a validated Iraqi food frequency questionnaire in 2018
Muhammed Tareq Mutar, Mustafa Majid Hameed, Mohammed Saleh Ibrahim, Ali Abdulmortafea Ibraheem, Ali Saad Ali, Maryam Akram.
College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Published: 21 Jan 2019
Background and objective: Nutritional assessment is important in obtaining information about the nutritional status of the individuals. According to the available sources, no food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is available for nutritional assessment in Iraq. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire and to assess dietary pattern intake.
Methods: Sixty five participants from college of medicine in Baghdad University were enrolled in this study using stratified random sampling. Participants were asked to fill a 4 days food record and based upon these dietary records, the questionnaire was developed. The participants then were asked to fill the questionnaire based on their food intake in the last year. The data was entered and organized using a food application which was developed by a programmer and the source of the data for the food nutritional values was obtained from food composition tables of US, Bahrain and some researches done in the region to assess Arabic food. The serving size was assessed based on the Canadian nutritional society guidelines. The validation of the questionnaire was assessed by comparing food intake assessed by the records and the questionnaire, simultaneously. The aim of the study was described for the participants and ethical approval was obtained.
Results: The mean energy intakes for questionnaires and records was 2702.23 Kcal and 2807.27 Kcal respectively, and the mean difference was 135.06. The questionnaire assessment of the daily intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein was 327.80, 83.11 and 104.73 grams respectively. There was insignificant difference between energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake between the questionnaire and the record.
Conclusion: This is the first valid food frequency questionnaire which was shown to provide nutritional assessment of dietary intake in Iraq. It requires more efforts to be considered as a national screening tool for dietary assessment.
Keywords: Food frequency questionnaire, Diet, Food record.